InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. Changing the age of consent

2. India-Bangladesh ties


GS Paper 3:

1. ILO: World Social Protection Report 2020-22


Facts for Prelims:

1. Teacher’s day

2. Minority educational institution

3. Special maternity leave

4. RBI guidelines for digital lending

5. Creative economy

6. Nano Urea

7. India’s 1st LNG fuelled Green Truck

8. Dark sky reserve

9. Mapping (in News)


Note: The rest of the Articles will be covered along with tomorrow’s CA.


Changing the age of consent

GS Paper 2

Syllabus: Government policies and interventions for the development of the social sector, Institutions and bodies constituted to protect vulnerable sections etc


Source: The Hindu


In  Rama Bande Rama v. the State of Karnataka, the Karnataka High Court quashed criminal proceedings of rape and kidnapping under the Indian Penal Code, under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012.

      • It was based on a complaint of a 17-year-old girl’s father against her 20-year-old partner.


Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012:

It was enacted to protect the children from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography with due regard for safeguarding the interest and well-being of children.

      • Consent of person under 18 years: Under POCSO, the consent of a person under the age of 18 is irrelevant, regardless of the nature and circumstance of the sexual interaction, or the particulars of the person with whom it takes place.
        • It defines a child as any person below eighteen years of ag



      • Criminal justice system: A number of young couples in consensual and non-exploitative relationships have found themselves embroiled in the criminal justice system
      • Sexual offences: Boys/young men are charged with sexual offences without proper investigations.
      • Institutionalized in children’s homes: The girls are treated as victims and institutionalized in children’s homes when they refuse to return to their parents or their parents refuse to accept them.


Related Judgments:

      • Vijaylakshmi v. State Rep (2021): The Madras High Court observed that, punishing an adolescent boy who enters into a relationship with a minor girl by treating him as an offender, was never the objective of the POCSO Act.


Need of Reforms in Law:

      • Social realities: The high rate of acquittals shows that the law is not in sync with the social realities of adolescent relationships.
      • Blanket criminalisation: Consensual sexual acts involving older adolescents erodes their dignity, best interests, liberty, privacy, evolving autonomy, and development potential.
      • Burden on courts: It also impacts the delivery of justice as these cases constitute a large burden on our courts.
        • They divert attention from investigation and prosecution of actual cases of child sexual abuse and exploitation.



      • Prevent criminalisation: There is a compelling need for law reform to revise the age of consent and prevent the criminalisation of older adolescents engaging in factually consensual and non-exploitative acts.


Other features of POCSO Act:

Current Affairs


Insta Links:



Mains Link:

Q. Examine the main provisions of the National Child Policy and throw light on the status of its implementation. (UPSC 2016)


Prelims Links:

With reference to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, consider the following: ( UPSC 2010)

  1. The Right to Development
  2. The Right to Expression
  3. The Right to Recreation

Which of the above is/are the Rights of the child?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans: (d)


  • All of them are rights of children under UNCRC.
  • The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child(CRC) was adopted by the United Nations in 1989.
  • It has been ratified by all members of the UN except for the United States.
  • Under the articles of the convention, all parties to it are required to ensure that children’s basic needs are fulfilled and they are able to reach their full potential.

India-Bangladesh ties

GS paper 2

Syllabus: Bilateral, regional and global groupings involving India and Affecting Indian interests, India-Bangladesh relations etc


Source: The Hindu

Directions: Important for Prelims (mapping, organization, trade between two countries) and mains (Indo-Bangladesh relation).

Context: On the occasion of, Sheikh Hasina’s much-anticipated visit to India,  countries are expected to sign at least one major river agreement.

India-Bangladesh trade:

      • Sixth largest trading partner: Bangladesh is India’s sixth largest trade partner with bilateral trade rising from $2.4 billion (two point four) in 2009 to $10.8 billion in 2020-21.
      • Industrial raw materials: Bangladesh imports critical industrial raw materials from India on which its exports are reliant.
      • World Bank working paper: Bangladesh’s exports could rise 182% under a free trade agreement.
        • This could become 300% if combined with trade facilitation measures and reduced transaction costs.
      • Service sectors: Bangladesh also could improve several manufacturing industries by leveraging Indian expertise in service sectors.
      • India and Bangladesh have expanded their partnership to include:
        • Artificial Intelligence
        • Fintech
        • Cybersecurity
        • Startups
        • Connectivity


Projects to boost eastern India-Bangladesh connectivity:

      • Economic growth: India’s connectivity projects with ASEAN and Bangladesh will open up the region to economic growth.
      • Joining IMT project: Bangladesh’s interest in joining the India-Myanmar-Thailand highway project.
      • Use of Bangladesh ports: India-Bangladesh bilateral waterway trade will get boosted as India can now use the Mongla and Chittagong
      • Use of Indian ports: India is rallying Bangladesh to divert its exports through Indian ports in place of Malaysian or Singaporean ports.
      • Train and bus connectivity: Three express trains and international bus services operate between India and Bangladesh.


Importance of Teesta for India and Bangladesh:


      • Important for farming: For West Bengal, Teesta is important to sustain its impoverished farming districts which comprise 12.77% (twelve point seven seven) of its population.



      • Dependence on agriculture: For Bangladesh, the Teesta’s flood plains cover about 14% of the total cropped area of the country and provide direct livelihood opportunities to approximately 7.3% (Seven point three) of the population.


Role of China:

      • Bilateral ties: China has been actively pursuing bilateral ties with Bangladesh.
      • Mega projects: Bangladesh had successfully approached China for a mega project to enhance the Teesta river water flow.
      • Rohingya issue: Bangladesh also requires China’s support in resolving the Rohingya refugee crisis.
      • Arms import: Bangladesh is the second biggest arms market for China after Pakistan.



      • Teesta water sharing: The two have failed to resolve long-standing issues such as Teesta water-sharing and killings at the border.
      • China factor: Chinese inroads into Bangladesh have been a cause of worry for India.



Earn the trust and confidence across the spectrum: The prevailing perception in Bangladesh is that India’s goodwill towards the country is aligned to one particular political ideology or school of thought as opposed to Bangladeshi society at large.

      • For India, the challenge is to earn the trust and confidence of Bangladeshis across the spectrum and strata.


Insta Links:


Mains Link:

Q. Project ‘Mausam’ is considered a unique foreign policy initiative of the Indian Government to improve relationships with its neighbours. Does the project have a strategic dimension? Discuss. (UPSC 2015)


Prelims Links:

      • Teesta river dispute
      • Land boundary agreement
      • Ganga and its tributaries
      • Rivers between India and Bangladesh
      • Mapping of India-Bangladesh border

Which of the following is/are common rivers between India and Bangladesh?

  1. Dharia
  2. Kushiyara
  3. Kaladan
  4. Teesta

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

a. 1, 2 and 4 only

b. 1, 2 and 3 only

c. 4 only

d. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (a)


ILO: World Social Protection Report 2020-22

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Indian Economy: Growth and Development


Source: ILO

Direction: Go through it once. A few points can be noted, but be very selective, since there will be so many such reports.


Context: ILO recently released a report specific to Asia and the Pacific

 Key findings:

      • No access to social protection: Almost 53% of the population in the world has no social protection (56% in the Asia-Pacific and in India over 76% (Bangladesh has a higher % of people under social protection) have no social protection)
      • Spending on social protection: World average is 12.9% (twelve points nine), while that in India is just 8.6% (eight points six) (Economic Survey further elaborates that in 2021-22)
      • India’s social security spending: Lower than 5% of GDP per capita.


Recommendation: Follow a ‘high-road’ development path and make social protection inclusive.


Social protection is designed to prevent deprivation, give assurance of a basic minimum income and protect the individual from any uncertainties.

      • It includes measures related especially to old age, unemployment, sickness, disability, work injury, maternity or the loss of the primary breadwinner.


Few Government steps:

Pradhan Mantri Jan Aarogya Yojana (PM-JAY); National Health Policy 2017; Social Security Code 2020; PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana (PMGKAY); One Nation One Ration Card; Atmanirbhar Bharat Rozgar Yojana, and MGNREGA


About ILO:

      • ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
      • It is the only tripartite UN agency, bringing together governments, employers and workers of 187 member States.
      • It sets labour standards, develops policies and devises programmes promoting decent work.


Insta Links

Labour Code Bill

Mains Links

Social security is an important topic for GS2, and GS3, as well as essays. Have a ready-made note on different aspects of it.

Q. “The universalization of social security remains an unsatisfied aspiration in the new code on social security”. Critically analyse. (250 Words)


Prelims links

What is/are the facility/facilities the beneficiaries can get from the services of Business Correspondent (Bank Saathi) in branchless areas? (UPSC 2014)

  1. It enables the beneficiaries to draw their subsidies and social security benefits in their villages.
  2. It enables the beneficiaries in rural areas to make deposits and withdrawals.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: C

Both statements are correct


Facts for Prelims

Teacher’s day


 Court cannot question the choice of minority educational institution


      • The Delhi High Court said that once the management of a minority educational institution makes a conscious choice of a qualified person from the “minority community” to lead the institution, then the court cannot go into the merits of the choice.


Minorities in India:

Constitutional Provisions for Minority:

Article 29:

      • It provides that any section of the citizens residing in any part of India having a distinct language, script or culture of its own, shall have the right to conserve the same.
      • It grants protection to both religious minorities as well as linguistic minorities.
      • However, the SC held that the scope of this article is not necessarily restricted to minorities only, as the use of the word ‘section of citizens’ in the Article includes minorities as well as the majority.


Article 30:

      • All minorities shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
      • The protection under Article 30 is confined only to minorities (religious or linguistic) and does not extend to any section of citizens (as under Article 29).


Article 350-B:

      • The 7th Constitutional (Amendment) Act 1956 inserted this article which provides for a Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities appointed by the President of India.


Special maternity leave

Source: The Hindu

Context: All female central government employees will have 60 days of maternity leave in case of the death of a child within 28 days after birth.

Condition: Women should have less than two surviving children and child delivery must be at an authorized hospital.

Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017 allows 26 weeks of paid leaves after childbirth


RBI guidelines for digital lending

Source: Business Standards

Direction: Read it once. Understand the basics of digital lending and current issues.

Context: RBI has tightened the norms for digital lending seeing a number of cases of fraud.

About the guidelines:

      • No middlemen: All loans disbursals/repayment between the holder of the bank account and the Regulated entities ( e.g. Commercial banks, cooperatives, NBFC etc.)
      • Limited information can be stored: Name, address etc. are allowed but no biometric information of borrower can be stored by Digital lending apps (DLAs)
      • Reporting of all lending activities to be done to Credit Information companies (CICs).
      • A borrower can exit the digital loan by paying principal and interest after the cooling-off period/ look-up period.
      • Benefits: Guidelines will help in protecting consumers from harassment, breach of data, etc.


Digital lending involves giving and recovering loans through web platforms or mobile apps. It facilitates speedy disbursal and helps lower the costs of lending.


Creative economy

Source: Economic Times

Context: As per the Exim Bank, India’s total exports of creative goods and services stood at close to $121 billion as of 2019.

India ranks 6th globally, outside the US, with respect to the top international box office markets by revenue.

When John Howkins popularized the term “creative economy” in 2001, he applied the term to the arts, cultural goods and services, toys and games, and research and development.


Recommendations for sustained ‘Creative Economy’:

      • Defining and mapping the creative industries in India
      • Funds to finance the creative industries
      • Focusing on joint programmes
      • Addressing the issue of copyrights
      • Promoting MSMEs and local artisans
      • Establishing creative districts and hubs
      • Forming a specialized institution for creative industries.
      • Several countries such as Australia, and France has made dedicated institutions or ministries for ‘Creative Economy’.


Nano Urea

Source: The Hindu, PIB

Context: Nano urea fast-tracked for approval despite incomplete trials.


      • Normally, three seasons of independent assessment by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is required for approving a new fertiliser, but in the case of nano urea, this was reduced to two.
      • Scientists are still unclear if the product can on its own cut farmers’ dependence on urea.

Government’s view:

      • Government has clarified that established and existing procedures are fully followed for the registration of the fertilizer as per Fertiliser Control Order (FCO), 1985
      • Nano Urea has been provisionally notified under FCO based on encouraging results and feedback received from ICAR and State Agricultural Universities

What is Nano Urea:

Nano urea is a patented and indigenously made liquid  (developed and patented by IFFCO) that contains nanoparticles of urea, the most crucial chemical fertiliser for farmers in India.

      • A single half-litre bottle of the liquid can compensate for a 45kg sack of urea that farmers traditionally rely on.


India’s 1st LNG fuelled Green Truck

Source: Business Standards

Direction: Go through it once.

Context: A start-up backed by Blue Energy Motors, has made India’s 1st LNGfuelled green truck at Chakan in Pune.

 Working of the Truck:

Heavy-duty liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicles work much like gasoline-powered vehicles with a spark-ignited internal combustion engine. The natural gas is super-cooled and cryogenically  (at – 260 degrees F) stored in liquid form, usually in a tank on the side of the truck.

      • In the liquid state, the volume of natural gas is 600 times smaller than its gaseous state.


Dark sky reserve

Source: The Hindu

Context: In a first-of-its-kind initiative, the Department of Science & Technology (DST) has announced the setting up of India’s first Dark Sky Reserve in Hanle, Ladakh in the next three months. (See Map (in News))

      • It is the partnership of Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC), Leh, and the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Bengaluru.


What is dark-sky-reserve?

A dark-sky reserve is an area, usually surrounding a park or observatory, that restricts artificial light pollution. The purpose of the dark-sky movement is generally to promote astronomy and avoid interference during astronomical observations.

The International Dark Sky Association is a U.S.-based non-profit that designates places as International Dark Sky Places, Parks, Sanctuaries and Reserves, depending on the criteria they meet.

      • Several such reserves exist around the world but none so far in India.


Why Hanle?

Located atop Mt. Saraswati in the Nilamkhul Plain in the Hanle Valley of Changthang, it is a dry, cold desert with a sparse human population and has the Hanle monastery as its nearest neighbour. The cloudless skies and low atmospheric water vapour make it one of the best sites in the world for optical, infrared, sub-millimetre, and millimetre wavelengths.

Maps (in News)

Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE

Please subscribe to Our podcast channel HERE

Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE

Follow our Twitter Account HERE

Follow our Instagram ID HERE 

Leave a Comment